The word Rajput is corrupt form of Rigvedic word Rajputra. In the Purushsukta of Rigyeda, the class of warriors has been described as Rajanaya. Literal meaning of Rajanaya or Rajan is King. Manu used Raja to describe Kshtriya. Subsoquently Rajan was mentioned as superior to kshtriya. According to Satpatha Brahmana distinction between Rajanaya, Rajputra & Kshtriya was drawn during the Brahmana age round about 1000 B.C. Later on in Epic age Rajputra was used for nobles & chiefs, Kshtra of Taittrya Brahmana was a man of valour whose son came to be known as khstriya. Kshtra has been described as Kshtra because he served with distinction. This goes to prove that Dr. V.A Smith’s theory of sudden appearance of Rajputs in 8th or th Century stands as historical about the origin of the Rajputs.
The Chinese traveller Yuan Chawang has no where mentioned Rajputa because in his time rajas did not call themselves as kshtriyas. In Kalhan’s Rajtarangini the word Rajputra has been used for owners of land. All this goes to prove that before the advent of muslims in India sons of kshtriyas or Rajanayas were known as Rajputras. By 12th century Rajputra came in close contact with khstriyas & the two became interchangeable. But all those who were actual rulers were called Rajan & there relatives Rajputra In due course of time the ruling classes started changing and those whe took to other professions made a caste by themselves. My friend Shri J.N. Asopa in a paper presented before the scholars during third session of Rajasthan History Congress opned that, It seems that Rajputs have come into existance by a theory of selection & rejection. Rajas & their sons & chieftains entered the fold and those who took upon their professions fell. This was exactly the vedic conception of Rajnayas & kshtriyas and there was nothing derogatory, The thoory of krinavantch visvamaryalm stood for it. “Kshtriya became higher title in the estimate of the people, even though they had lost their Raj, but held the land. Late Shri Bisheshwar nath Reu did not believe in this theory. He said it is not strange that simply because the present kshatriya call themselves Rajputras. VA. Smith & others would chain as off shoots of non Rajas. But Rajput is corrupt form of Rajputra probably the younger from the class adopted the title of Rajputra with a view to distinguish themselves from ordinary kshatriyas. Rajputra had higher status irrespective of the fact whether they belonged to old or not, By the time the Mughals appeared the Rajput became a caste & not clan in which there was no scope for the new Rajputras, sons of the rulers of late medieval India. They had to be conteneded with power & prestige which they enjoyed but could not be included amorg Rajputs. Subsequently the Rajputra class converted into caste and shockles of caste became a binding force against class struggle because in India pcople became too much caste conscious to recapture the importance of clan.
The salient feature of the character of Rajput, in the words of late Dr. K.R. Qanungo is “A Rajput is condemned as kaput who fails to retaliate to die in attempt. His very birth puts him under debt to die in vindication of his personal and family honour in the first instance, and for his kul & gotra whenever the call would come. The debt of salt is also repayable by laying down life for the pay master, no matter of whatever creed or country.
A few Sanskrit texts and inseriptions inform us that the word Rajput has been derived from Rajputra. Hemchandra (1088-1172) used the word rajaputra in the sense of Rajput. Mt. Abu inscription of 1230 speaks of all the rajputras of the illustrious Pratihars & Mertunga, in his work Prabandhchintamani (1305 A.D.) speaks of 500 rajputras of Parmar cl an. On the basis of these evidences it can be concluded that from 12th centruy onwards some Rajput clans were called Rajputra or Rajput.
Dr. K.R. Qanungo was of the opinion that Rajput bocame a generic denotation in medieval times. In the middle ages Rajput ordinarly meant a trooper in the serVIce of a chief or a free lance captain and sometimes was applied in applause even to abrigand of desperat courage. Remnants of Rajput rule were found as far as Ghazani and Qandhar, inaccessible defiles of the Himalayas and the Vindhyas, and in the unhealthy plains of Bengal This indicates the vitality of the martial& mercantile communities of Rajasthan The Maghal Emperors settled contingents of Rajput soldiers to prop up their authority in the turbulent & outlying territories. In Mughal times the Rajputs, though small in number, filtered into Bengal, Orissa, Chota Nagpur & Baglana on the other fringe of Maharashtra. Under the circumstances the theory propounded by Col. Tod & VA Smith regarding abrupt appearance of Rajputs on the canvas of History or mixed breed of the forcigners is rejected. The Rajputs in historical times maintained the social political traditon of the kshtriyas of the Vedic age.
One of the earlier historian of our country Dr. C.V. Vaidya opened that there were two races of khashtriyas from the Epic age To substantiate his thory he quotod Puranas & Manu Smiriti in which solar & Lunar origin of the kshtriyas has been mentioned Yayati & his sons came to settle in India. Puru was the first person to occupy region round river Saraswati & from there Lunar race rajputs spread cast, north & south wards. Thus thy occupied the area of the present Punjab upto Oudh. The other race is that of the Ikshvaku whom Manu describes Sun borm. Manu has given in his Smiriti Sun of Vivasvat. Dr. P.L. Bhargava has supported the theory of Dr. Vaidya & maintained that the progeny of Ishvaku are the porgeny of lla & Ish. Son of Soma was Sun which is also the other name of Moon. Thus the Kshatriyas were the original inhabitants of India like the Aryans who migrated from here to other parts of the world. The Ishumati rivers flowed in the Punjab. Aryans named it Ishumati. On the bank of this river lived Aryans &.here they multiplied. There were two hordes which migrated from this place. One was named Suryavanshi & the other Chandravanshi.
Discussion on the origon of the Rajputs may be concluded in the words of Dr. K.R. Qanungo who said, “Divine warriors might not spring up from sacrficial fire pit on Mt. Abut or on the bank of Pushkar Lake: Solar & Lunar origin might be a fiction; and yet the Rajput was towering individuality & a vital force in moulding the Indian Socicty which has been in melting pot more than once since the time of Mahabharat for periodical readjustments. Rajputs have the best pedigree, of those who wilded sword. Col. C.K.M. Walter also said “The Rajput may well be proud of their ancient chivalry, but in no country in the world have we such a brave, valorous. Rajputs who acted in defence of their religious liberty & for the protection of their homes & earth.”
The Origin of the Gurjar Pratihars
Pratihars are called Gurjar because they belonged to the pastoral tribe Gurjar which had its setlements in various part of north India. There is another reason also. The Pratibars were called Gurjars because they belonged to Gurjardesh. Similar instances of a geographical tract giving its name to the people would be Gauda, Panchal, Karnata etc Dr. R.C. Majumdar did not agree with this reasoning & be tried to demolish the stand taken by Dr. G.H. Ojha by writing “Anyone wiho approached the problem in a spirit of detachoment, free from preconceived notions of any kind, must be struck by the fact that the name of Gurjar is not applied to any tract of land in old literature. Even in later period it is not Gurjara pure & simple, but some form derived from it, such as Gurjaratra, Gurjaastra, Gurjarata, Gujranwala, Gurjar Khan ete which we ‘usually mct with similar geographical names in Indian record. If Gurjara was originally the geographical name of a locality, now are we to explain the different derivations which seem to be nothing but so many attempts to evolve a local name out of Gurjars.”
To some extent one can agree with Dr R.C, Majumdar He appealed to old literature. Every historian accepts testimony of literature with caution To illustrate this we would take up the travels of Yuan chwang. He mentions 72 countries in India, including Kuche (Gurjars) of which the capital was Bhillamala and its ruler a ksatriya. When Bana describes Prabhakarvardhan as a ‘troubler of the sheep of Gurjara” he is probably referring to this kstriya ruler. The word Gurjara is also methioned in Lata Malava Gurjara of the Aihole incription where different cannoting there people is supplied by the territory they ruled. The Arab General Junaid is known to have mentioned two states of Rajasthan, 1c. Bailman and Jurz, the later is obviously Gurjara. The Kuvalayamala speaks of the Gurjara, Lata, Saindhavas, Malavas & Maravas, ie. poople of Gurjars, Lata ete. Obviously it is supplied by geographical location of these places && its people. It speaks of Gurjaradesh beautified with temples by disciples of Yakasdatta Gani. The Yastilaka champu of Somdeva Suri describes the Dravida, Daksinaya, Tribhukta, Gauda Uttarapath & Gurjara armies, obviously classifying them not on the basis of any clan or tribe but thcir habitant. The Dravids were people of the far south, the Daksinayas of the Deccan, the Tribhuktas of Tirhut. the Gaudas of Bengal & the Gurjar of all the land ruled over by Gurjar Pratihars of Kanauj. This included the whole of north India excepting the three areas-Tirhut, Bengal and Uttrapath, the last of which comprisod Western Punjab and Kashmir.
When the Pratihars described them in power in connation of the world Gurjara contracted. Gurjara included hence forth not the erstwhile extensive empire of the Pratihas which declined after Mulraja Chalukya and his desccndent extended east ward upto Western confines of Sapadlaksa which included most of the territory known as Gurjara. For reference consult Hemchandra’s Mahavir charita Prabhachandra’s Prabhavaka charitra ctc. These are examples enough to disprove Dr. R.C. Majumdar’s contention dhat the name Gurjara could be & was actually applicd in old literature to tract of country occupied by the Pratihars from 750 onwards. Their political successors in Gujrat were the Chalukyas & the Baghelas. But even this evidence does not satisfy some of critics
The only basis to connect the Pratihars with the Gurjar tribe is So no jo auos the word Gurjara used for some Pratihar families. But there is no compelling reason to oquate the words, Gurjara & Gujar The Pratihars were connected wtih Gurjaradesh as its residents & rulers can casily be established not only on the basis of Kuvalayamala, which spcaks of Ranastin Rambhadra as ruler of Jalor but also his coins & inscriptions, all of which come within the ancient Gurjar land.
Thus, “Gurjara was for centuries the name of the territory which included Bhillamala and Jalor, and as this was the original home of the Pratihars, they continued to be known from Gurjara land which was their home land Had Gurjara boen their tribal designation, it would have stuck to them, even after the lapse of centuries and the loss of their Original territoris, It was only their correction with Gurjars which made the appellation, Gurjar, appropriate for them, the moment the correction ended, the appellation was passed on to the Chalukyas, the new masters of the Gurjar territory and was retained by these latter people too, only as land as the are not deprived of Gurjar dominians by the Muslims”.
Rise of Guhils of Mewar
Medpat or Mewar is the traditional abode of the Guhils who are popularly known as guhilots. It is a Rajasthani word which bears its origin from Guhiputra, Gohilya or Gohiputra. It seems the ruling dynasty of Mewar adopted its sumame from the founder Gohila who lived round about 566 A D. reference to this is available in contemporary Aparajit inscription of 661 A.D. (which has been refered by many scholars) which furnishes the genoalogy of the Guhil Vansha & mentions names of Guhil, Bhoj, Mahendra, Shear & Aparajit. In sober history memory of the valour & exploits of rulers are mentioned who defended the culture & religion for at least a thousand years. Traditional account metnions the name & deads of Bappa Rawal who occupies pre-cminnt place in the Bardic literature. According to Khyats he is said to have measured sword against Arab invadors during the 8th Century.
Guhilots of Mewar highly raised the presitge of Mewar in the first quarter of 13th Century when Maharaval Jaitra Sinha ascendet throne. His achievements have been lauded in Chirwa inscription
Dr. G.C. Ray Chandhari hold that Jayasinha of Vagad & Jaitra Sinha were one and the same person, Chirwa inscrption informs that Jaitra Sinha appointed Ksema as Talara of Chittor. He faught a decisive battle against Utthuma probably against the Paramars of Malwa. Kumbhalgarh inscription metnions Vagad as one of the possessions of Jaitra Sinha, Its version has created confusion about the identify of Jaitra Sinha & his achievements. So late Dr. Dashrath Sharma referred to Aghata inscription of 1262 A.D. in which Jaitra Sinha has been described as Vanquisher of the rulers of north & south India, Jaitra Sinha’s conflict with the Gurjaras as historical fact which was the result of his desire to get free from the Gurjara control. Aghata, the old capital of Mewar, was under the control of Bhimadeva II. When the position of Chalukyas weakened the Paramars & Yadavas tried to hit Gurjara Pratihar ruler Balaka from rear.
Jaitra Sinha’s conflict with the rulers of Maradesa, Jangaldesa, Nadol are established historical fact. His control over Godwad was also accepted. But the literary sources also speak of Jaitra sinha’s fight against sultan Iltutmish of Delhi.
Pratiars of Mandor
As stated above, “use of word Gurjara for Pratihars, like Majumdar, Modi, Mehta, Sarkar etc, was an occupation title which could, irrespective of caste is borne by any one who dischanged the duties of a Pratihar”.
Dr. R.C. Majumdar was of the view that Pratihar was a clan & the Pratihars of Mandor as well as Knnauj claimed themselves to be descendants of Laxman of Ayodhya. This is proved by Sapartal inscription of Raja Bhoj. This information is corroborated by the writings of Rajasekhar.
Dr. Dashrath Sharma opined that, “The Pratihar family of be as eminent as that of Laxman.” In support of hus contention he qutoed verse 5 of the above mentioned inscription that from Brahamana Harishchandra & his Kshatriya wife Bhadra were born Pratihars of Mandor. To the Pratihars of Mandor, Harishchandra stood in same relation as Brahma (Prajapati) to the world. Ghatiyal inseription of Kakkua, the Pratihar ruler of Jalor, has also been referred to substantiate that he regarded Brahmana Harishchandra as his guru or ancestor. From the Raghuvansha of Kalidas Brahmana Harishchandra’s Non-Brahmana wife gave birth to children who where known as drinker of wine, i e. Kshatriya. Concluding his opinin about the Pratihars of Mandor, late Dr. Dashrath Sharma reached the conclusion that, “Pratihars of Mandor were descendants of Brahmana Harishchandra’s Kshatriya wife Bhadra” He further wrote that, “though the Pratihars of Kanauj had by the time of the incision of the inscription of Bauka & Kakkua became emperors of Northern India, the Pratihar’s of Mandor, never tried to connect their family with them. They described themsclves simply as the descendants of the great Vedic scholar Harishchandra & his two wives
“Actually I am not sure whether the Pratihar’s of Mandor were called Gurjaras at any time”. Dr. R.C. Majumdar has identified teritory of Jurz, mentioned by Arab writer Junaid, as the Pratihar kingdom of Madnor. Dr. NR Ray went further when in his article published in the Indian Historical quarterly Vol. IV, he mentioned Gurjara nationality of the Pratibars of Mandor which has been rejected after serious analysis by Dr. D. Sharma. To quote his own words in conclusion, “Obiously the Kshatriya hood and Brahamana hood of the Pratihars of Mandor can not be discarded on the basis of arguments like these advanced by Dr. NR. Ray, can be, on its basis or between 1222 & 1229 A.D. As a result of this Muslim invasion Aghata & Chitrakuta, the two intellectual and military centres of Mewar suffered a lot, Nagada, the capital of Mewar, had serious set back Jaitra Sinha is said to have fought against Khavas Khan who wanted to plunder Auhilwara. He checked the advance of Muslims from the direction of Sindh.”
Summing up the achievement of Jaitra Sinha late Dr. Dashrath Sharma wrote in Rajasthan. Through the Ages, Vol. I, “On the whole Jaitra Sinha’s reign foms a glorious period in the annals of early medieval Mewar. Not only did he achievo independence for his state, he also expanded the state in various directions. The Kumbhalgarh inscription describes him as a ruler of Chitrakuta, Medapata, Aghata and Vegada. By Medapat might be meant as suggested by Dr. G.C. Ray Chandani the north-westerm parts of the state than occupied largely by the Medas. From the defeat of Tribhuvan of Kotra we might asume further consolidation and expansion of his power in the north western direction. His defect of the Panch lagudika Jaitramalla or Jaitrugi in Vagad points not only to expansion south- east ward but the curb he put on the Paramera aggression in that area. Jaytugis attempt could, only have been to recaputre what the Paramaras had once ownedAs for Aghata he freed it from the Chalukyas who had occupied it after Samanta Sinha’s defeat and retained it even after Kumarsinha’s had come to the throne with their help & driven away the ushurpet Kirtipala Chauhan (Of Jalore), Chitrakuta is mentioned perhapes beciase it attained in his reign a new importance, Jaitrasinha strengthened its fortifications & provided Kor its efficient administration.” It is certain that Jaitrasinha’ died before 1260 A.D, Like Jaitra Sinha, Teja Sinha his successor came in comflict with Balban who was for some time out of power & tried to repair his forutnes by attacking kingdoms of Ranthambhor, Bundi & Chitrur, i e Chittor, Teja Sinha was succeded by Samar Sinha who ruled for at least 26 year3. He died in 1302 & was succeeded by his son Ratan Singh. The basis of any other arguements employed so far, support that Harishchandra and his descendants were Gurjars.”
Seat of Power
The inscription of the Gurjaraa. Pratiharas discovered at Jodhpur and Ghatiyala in the Modern State of Rajasthan bear testimony to the fact that the Gurjar. Pratihara rose into prominence for the first time in Gurjaratra which lies in Rajasthan It appears that their province of suthority in Rajasthan subsequently extended from Dendavanakavisava (modern Didwana) in the west to Rajor in the east, comprising the westen part of the former State of Jodhpur and nearly the whole of the former State of Jaipur and Alwar Mandavyapura lying in latitude and longitude in Rajasthan was captured by the sons of Harichandra who was the progenitor of the family of the Gurjara Pratihara of Gurjaratra. It is not unreasonable to believe that Mandavyapura became the seat of power of the Gurjara Pratiharas of Gurjaratra A prince of the Gurjaratra family, fourth in descent from Harichandra, Nagabhata or Nahada (C. 625-50 AD) made Medantaka his permanent capital. On Yuan Chwang’s testimony some scholars believe that Bhinmala or Bhillamala in Rajasthan was the capital of the Gurjara-Pratiharas. Yuan Chwang seems to have vsited Kiu-che-lo (Gurjara) and described Pi-lo-mo-lo (Bhillamala) as its capital town. When Bhinmala actually fell in the hands of the Gurjara- Pratiharas cannot be determined from the available records Brahmagupta, called Bhillamalakacarya-the teacher residing in Bhillamalaka, states that he wrote Brahmashutasiddhanta in S.S. 550 (A.D. 628) in the reign of the Capa ruler Vyaghranmukha.
It bears out that Bhillamala was in the possession of the Capas till 628 AD. It appears that the Capas could not withstand the onslaught of the Gurjara-Pratiharas in subsequent years and Bhillamala was lost to the Gurjara Pratiharas before Yeon Chwang paid a visit to the place Mandavyapura, Medantaka and Bhillamala seem to have bo the cxpitals of the Gnrjara Pratihara power in Gurjaratra at different times. The account of the Jodhpur inscription of Bauka that Medantaka was the permanct capital of Nagabhata is not compatible with the account of Yan Chwang. It cannot be hazarded that Nagabhata severod his relation with the main stem of the fanily and set up an independont kingdom at Modantaka, for the Jodhpur mscription issued by the last but one ruler of the family maintains the line of succession in order. It is likely that when Yuan Chwang paid a visit to Bhillamala it might have boen treated as a socond capital as it found in the case of Kalanjara and Khajuraho in the days of the Candellas of Jejakablukti.
The Early Rulers Haricandra (c. 550 A.D.) and his sons
Haricandra was the progenitor of the Gurjara Pratihara family of Gurjaratra. The Jodhpur and Ghatiyali inscriptions refer to a line of kings extending over twelve generations. Taking twenty five years as an average for cach generation, the total period of their nule would be about three hundred ycars. As these inseriptions bear the dates 894 (VS) and 918 (VS.) respectively, the foundation of the dynasty may be placed at about VS 607-550 A.D.
The inscriptions refes to Haricandra as an illustrious Brahamana well versed in the meaning of the Vedas and Sastras and a preceptor like Prajapati. He was called Rohilladdhi He first took the daughter of a Brahamana as his wife and, then married a Ksatria lady namod Bhadra who belonged to a noble family and was endowed with good qualities. Bhadra gave birth to four sons, Bhogabhata, Kakka, Rajila and Dadda, who were fit to hold the earth They captured Mandavyapura and erectod a high rampart which was calculated to increase the fear of the enemies. The sons begotten by Bhadra came to be known as Pratiharas. The inscriptions trace the descent of the family from the epic hero Laksmana, the borther of Rama, and, as Laksmana acted as a doorkeeper (Partihara) while rendering services to Rama in his state of exile from Ayodhya, the family of Haricandra came to be known as the Pratiharas.
Narabhata (c. 600 A.D.) and Nagabhata (c. 625 A.D.)
From Rajjila was born the illustrnous son Narabhata who on account of his prowess was callod Pellapeh, His son and successor Nagabhata, known as Nahada in the Ghatiyala inscription, made Medantakapura his permanent capital It was perhaps during his reign that the Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chwang paid a visit to the Gurjara country .
His accounts refer to the then nuler of Gurjaratra. Yuan Chwang save that the king, who was a Ksatriya by birth, wvas a young men celebrated for his wisdom and valour and he was a profound believer in Buddhism and a partron ofexceptional abilities. There is no reference in the Jodhpur or Ghatiyala inscription to the effect that any of the rulers of the familu was a Buddhist, The Jodhpur inscritpion begins with a salutation to Visnu (Om Namo Visnave), In the absence of any other positive evidence it is difficult to give credence to the account of Yuan Chwang with regard to the religious predilection of the rulwer of Gurjaratra. It appears that as there was religious toleration, the Chinese pilgrim mistook Budhism for the personal religion of the ruler.
Tata and Bhoja (c. 650 A.D.)
From Nagabhta, ‘begotten on Jajjikadevi, were born the two uterine accomplished sons named Tata and Bhoja, who were oppressdors of enemies. Tata, who was of retiring disposition and who realised that the world was evanescent, confered the administration of the kingdom on his younger brother Bhoja. Tata retired to the pious hermitage of Mandavya adomed with streams and rivers, and practised there the rites of pure religion.
Yasovardhana (c. 675 A.D.)
Tata’s son the illustrious Yasovardhana, who was known for his prowess, attained celebrity by his own arms. It was perhaps during his reign that Prthuvardhana of Sailvamsa attacked the Gurjara territories. The Ragholi plates of Jaya vardhana. Il state that Prthuvardhana. formerly having drawn the sword with his own arm, at once overcame the Gurjara country by his various attacks. The success seems to have been short lived. Yasovardhana is credited with having rooted out all enemies and passed on the reins of government to Canduka.
Canduka (c. 700 A.D.) and Siluka (c. 725 A.D.)
Canduka was known for his prowess and charitable disposition His son Siluka (or Siluka) fixed a perpetual boundary between the provinces of Stravani and Valla. The latter may be identified with Vallamandala mentioned in the Jodhpur inscription and the former must have been bordering on Vallamandala. Siluka inflictod a defeat upon Bhattika Devaraja, who was perhaps a member of the Bhatti-clan, referred to in verse twenty sixth of the Jodhpur inscription, and obtainod fiom him the umbrella of the state. He got a tank excavated and a temple of Siddhesvara Mahadeva constructed at the holy place called Trota a city not named in the Jodhpur inscription but owed its foundation to him.
Al Biladuri, while giving an account of Junaid’s incursion, mentions amog other things that Junaid sent his officers, in addition to other places, to Marmad and Mandal and conquered Bailman and Jurz. These places may be identified in their order with Maru-mada, which also comprises Jaisalmer and a part of the former state of Jodhpur, Mandor, Vallamandala and Gurjara. The whole of the Gurjara country was attacked by the Arabs whose expeditions enveloped the country in ruins, Junaid was the gerenal of Khalif Hasham and, as the reign period of Hasham ranges from 724AD. to 743 AD, it is reasonable to assume that the expeditions were launched some time after 724 A.D, and prior to 743 A.D. Siluka seenis to have restorod peace and order after the Arab invasion, for the inscription refer to his son Jhota exercising authority over the Gurjara territory and Jhota conferred the administration on his son Bhilladitya after some time.Had there been no peace and order.
Jhota (c. 750 A.D.) and Bhilladitya (c. 775 A.D.)
Jhota proceeded to Bhagirathi (ganga) after enjoying the bliss of kingdom. His own Bhilladitya governed the kingdom while then bestowed it on his son Kakka He proceeded to Gangadvara and after staying for eighteen years finally went to heaven by practisng fast.
Kakka (c. 800 A.D.)
Kakka was a man of leaming. His knowledge of prose grammer. logic astronomy, with attendent arts, and poctry in all languages was EXtraordinary, He fought with the Gaudas at Mudgagiri (Monghyr). It is unimaginable that he would have fought against the Gaudas at Mudgagiri on his own without being resisted on the way by Gurjaratra to Mudgagiri by the Gurjara Pratihara of Kanyakubja through whose territories he must have cut his way to Mudgagiri. It appears that he accompained Nagabhata. Il of Kanyakubja in his compaign against the king of Vanga This assumption receives strength from an account in the Daulatpur (Jodhpur) copper plate dated V.S. 900 843 A.D., which says that Bhoja I of Kanyakubja reccived a grant in the province of Gurjaratra which was originally made by Vatsaraja and was subscquently sanctioned by Nagabhata II. It may be inferred that the Gurjara-Pratiharas of Gurjaratra had recognised the suzerainty of the Gurjara of Kanyakubja and Kakka in the capacity of a feudatory of his suzerain power accompained Nagabhata II in his compaign against the king of Giauda.