Dr. H.D. Sanklia has written in ‘Begining of civilization in Rajasthan”. that nearly half a million years ago. Rajasthan was the arena of human history. The South-East Rajasthan comprises of the districts of Udaipur, Banswara, Dungarpur, Bhilwara, Bundi, Kota and Jhalawar. In this region Banas and its tributories-the Gambhiri, Bedach and Waga flowed and men lived on the banks of these rivers nearly one lakh years ago. To prove this the tools discovered from this area are hand axe, cleavers and flakes; they are tools of palcolitic type which we found near Chittor where old town was in existance on a high ground. Men lived here and used wild fruits, roots and flesh of animals like deer, pigs, goats and sheep.
Relies of stone age have been recovered from the valley of Chambal and its tributories Remains recovered from Jaipur and Indergarh are almost similar to those which were found in Bhangaerh of Alwar district. Similar sites existed 8 miles from Bairath near village Dhingra. The village is situated on the bank of culvert, which is tributory of Sabi.
A study of Luni Basin by Dr. V.N. Mishra shows that there was thick forest, which boarded river Luni, In the words of Dr. Mishra here “wandered a men who still lived in storage. His tools of a different material and make then those made by Chittor and Banas man”. They were meant for cutting, scrapping and piercing the hide of the animals. The pointed tools spear and arrow were beautifully made.
Traces of another stone age, called the “Microlithic” of tiny character which have bcen recovered from Eastern and Western are tools Rajasthan. The microlithic culture existed in the basin of Saraswati Microlithic tools have been unearthed in Ajmer. Tonk, Bhilwara, Chittor, Pali & Udaipur also They have been brought to light from Rairh finds, from Umod Nagar and Bihar The places are situated in Jaipur, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur district respectively. Microlithic culture was also excavated at Ahar and Gilund. Both the places are on the banks of Banas, nearly 40 miles North-East of Udaipur. The Microlithic period of Rajasthan History was savage. When men lived without permancnt house and had no pots for drinking, cooking and storing The Udaipur area in South- East Rajasthan was the first which developed after Microlithic age. Men lived in hill girt valleys, which had ample ram and water from river Ahar. The first men to enter was either the Bhils who came to settle here thousands of years ago or some other race. Therefore developed a culture of in settlement known as Aghata. From there 45th deep deposit was recovered after excavation, 15th building levles represented by a round about 16 hundred ft. long and 550 ft. broad.
Cultural Significance of Ahar
The excavations at Ahar have thrown valuable light, on the life and condition of its resident. The built houses which had foundation of stone, only on one side, but belt raised. The super structure is cither of mud bricks or clay. Rooms of the buildings were also not very small. They were enterwovan with bamboos. Its plaster was with clay right from pre historic times. The people of Ahar mixed nodules with cheaps n clay and strengthened it on walls and foundation. The flooring was done with river silt and blackish clay. Large Jars and too heaths were also recovered.
The pottery recovered from here forms bricks of pre historic periods. They were painted with Red & Black or Black & Tan It was called dulux pottery. Small bowls having straight sides, shellow diseases and Globulour Jars with high necks were rocovered from here. They are polished with smooth surface and painted with Dots/Lines, diamonds in white panels, pottery is-really remarkable, Their Jars were of two to four ft. in hcight, two to thrce in breadth and their upper portion was beautifully made.
That man was no longer a fruit gatherer but later on it became clear that the pcople of Ahar, used pottery and number of large roasting pans. The poople grindered grain and baked bread, from the examination of various potteries, it is clear that this culture had contact with Iranians.
The people of Ahar had no stone tools, they had copper umplements. The Copper used by them, might have been taken from Debari which is only 10 miles away from Udaipur. Flat copper axes and coiled copper sheets were also found below floor of a house.
Ahar people used ornaments made of Terracota beads. They also knew use of semi precious stones of small horns of cattle, such an clephant, dogs etc., were made. Human figures with pinched nose were also recovered. Their costumes were fine in first and second Centur The people of Ahar burried the dead with head towards North and towards South, They also burried ornaments worn by the dead.
The Ahar cutlure was not limited to Udaipur City It extended from South-East Rajasthan to distant places like Bhagwanpura known as Gilunda, From here a big mud wall with brick structures has bern discovered which is 100 Ft. 80 Ft. The pottery and toys recovered from here are almost similar to that of Ahar.
The people of Gilunda had contracts with pre historic men of Malwa and Saurastha. The age of Gilunda culture has been determined between 15ch hundred, one thousand B.C. The beginning of Ahar culture must have been older than that.
Recently excavations have boen conducted at Balathal in Udaipur Distt. The pottery, the relies of a wall reveal traces of developed cutlure and also prove that Ahar culture extended as far as Balathal and Gilunda.
Cultural Significance of Saraswat valley civilisation
Equally remakable is the development of cutlure on the banks of river Saraswati and Drsadvati which once flowd in the fertile region of Northern Rajasthan. There was fertile land and plenty of water was available and bracking climate with hardy people resulted in developed culture four thousands year ago. The discovery placed Saraswati Cutlure with in the ambit of Harappan culture. Thus it is said that culture extended from Sutkagan dodor, in the west to Bhadra, in the East, which is in the Drsadvati Valley from Roopan in North to river king in the South was the extension of culture. There are no literary evidences to support the findings of Archalogists but seals found at Harappa render supporting evidence, Dr. A, Ghosh discovered on the flanks of river Saraswati site of ancient culture. Saraswati is no more in existence probably it flowd between Hanumangarh and Suratgarh, 15 miles East of Bhadra. Now in its place river Ghagghar flows which is also not perennial.
Cultural significance of Kali Bangan Civilisation
Kali Bangan, a place situated in Northem part of Rajasthan and is comtemporary to the great cultures of the world. The people of Kali Bangan developed a definite pattern of living which could be under the rolling sand tooms. The civilisation was flourishing one and superior to other ancient civilisations. On the banks of river Ghagghar many ancient sites of go back days of Indus Valley civilizations were situatod. One of the sites was of Kali Banga. Archaoologists are of the opinion that Kali Bangan was the third capital of the Indus Valley empire. Large number of articles discovered from there are plain and painted pottery, Chert blades, copper implements, ornaments, terracotta,’ figurines, gamesmen, weights and seals made of steatite. Scals bear legend in the Harrappan scrpt having figures of some animals and even a scenic composition.
Many remains of buildings were also diccovered from Kali Bangan. They reveal that there was town planning which followed in Rajasthan in proto historic times. The houses were mostly of mud bricks, cach house had four or five large sized rooms and for disposal of dirty water drains built of mud bricks or soakage jars were provided.
Seals discovered from Kali Bangan are of special value like other seals recovered from Harappan or Mohan Jodaro. The seals of Kali Bangan had settled script, though letters are over lapping and were similar to script which was written from left to right.
Like Kali Bangan other mouns on the banks of Saraswati were also discovered, which give evidence of small settlements. The Harrappan culture had homoginity with the culture in Bikaner region of Rajasthan.
Other Michrolithic Sites of Rajasthan
Ahar is the first sites which was excavated in 1955. It was situated on the banks of river Bedach and Gambhiri up to river Khera 2 miles East of Chittor. Michrolithic consisted of fluted cores and blades, Triangular section of Chalcidony. Michrolithic also lived on the bad of river Chandrabhaga in Jhalrapatan. Micicrolithic civilization was discovered by 1956 from Bara Bedla, Bichri, Garua, Dawoke, Mander, Kanpur, Bijana and Intelly. All there places are in Udaipur district and in Chittourgarh district. Also sites were discvoered at Bari Achner, Deyri and Biawar, Microlithic consisting of fluated chert cores were found scattered over a considerable area of Khiwnser in Nagur district. In 1957 microlits were also discovered from the Basin of Banas, Kothari and Bedach, in Bhilwara district. Also sites have been excavated which prove that microlits were found along the banks of river Parvati at Kakoni in Kota district, Microlits resided on the banks of river Sukri at Dhaneri in Sojat Tehsil, in Tonk district at Bharm. This place was the residence of Microlits. In 1959 four miles from Biladra on road to Jaipur Microlits tools were discovered. Microlits sites at Gilunda and at Umed Nagar, in tehsil Osia of Jaisalmer district were discovered.
Historic Rajasthan (500 B.C. to 348 A.D.)
Explorations conducted by Archacologists revealed that at Bairath, Rairh, Nilasar, Nagar in Jaipur district and at Nagari in Chittor district coins, sculptures, omaments and epigraph were discovered, They all go to prove that Brahmical and Buddhist culture flourished in Eastem Rajasthan from third century B.C. The Indo Greeks had their camps in Madhyamika or Nagari in Chittorgarh district. Bairath was the great city which playcd important role The Bizak Ki Pahari temple, revealed that it was also centre of Buddhist culture. One can sce relies of too Buddhist monastries, Ashokan pillar, punch mark coins and numerous pieces of pottery of third century. The importance of Ajmer and Bharatpur were brought to light by Barl inscription of the Mauryan period. The image of Yaksh srocovered from Noh in Bharatpur district goes to prove settlement during historic Rajasthan. In 327 B.C. when Alexander invaded India the Malva, and the Arjun Nayaks migrated to Rajasthan, There after republican states came into existence, coins of Rajahaya Janpath are in Brahmi Script. The Mahabharat refers to the seats of Vatadhanas by Indo greeks. The Barni inscription in prakrit language. Thus Rajasthan, in the sccond century B.C., had number of states of Salve groups.